A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or . A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. Rash can last 5 to 20 days, the diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions. The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts. It classically starts at the head, and spreads downwards.
Differential diagnosisCommon causes of rashes include:
- Food allergy
- Medication side effects
- Allergies, for example to food, dyes, medicines, insect stings, metals such as zinc or nickel; such rashes are often called hives.
- Skin contact with an irritant
- * Fungal infection, such as ringworm
- * Balsam of Peru
- Reaction to vaccination
- Skin diseases such as eczema or acne
- Exposure to sun ( sunburn) or heat
- Friction due to chafing of the skin
- Irritation such as caused by abrasives impregnated in clothing rubbing the skin. The cloth itself may be abrasive enough for some people
- Secondary syphilis
- Poor personal hygiene
- Autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis
- Lead poisoning
- Repeated scratching on a particular spot
- Lyme Disease
- Scarlet fever
Diagnostic approach]] The causes of a rash are numerous, which may make the evaluation of a rash extremely difficult. An accurate evaluation by a provider may only be made in the context of a thorough history (What medication is the patient taking? What is the patient's occupation? Where has the patient been?) and complete physical examination. Points to note in the examination include:
- The appearance: e.g., purpuric (typical of vasculitis and meningococcal disease), fine and like sandpaper (typical of scarlet fever); circular lesions with a central depression are typical of molluscum contagiosum (and in the past, small pox); plaques with silver scales are typical of psoriasis.
- The distribution: e.g., the rash of scarlet fever becomes confluent and forms bright red lines in the skin creases of the neck, armpits and groins ( Pastia's lines); the vesicles of chicken pox seem to follow the hollows of the body (they are more prominent along the depression of the spine on the back and in the hollows of both shoulder blades); very few rashes affect the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (secondary syphilis, rickettsia or spotted fevers, Scholar search guttate psoriasis, hand, foot and mouth disease, keratoderma blennorrhagicum);
- Symmetry: e.g., herpes zoster usually only affects one side of the body and does not cross the midline.