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Miniemulsion

A miniemulsion (also known as nanoemulsion) is a special case of emulsion. A miniemulsion is obtained by shearing a mixture comprising two immiscible liquid phases (for example, oil and water), one or more surfactants and, possibly, one or more co-surfactants (typical examples are hexadecane or cetyl alcohol). The shearing proceeds usually via exposure to high power ultrasoundPeshkovsky A, Peshkovsky S, "Acoustic Cavitation Theory and Equipment Design Principles for Industrial Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasound", Physics Research and Technology, Nova Science Pub. Inc., October 31, 2010, "Translucent Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions", Industrial Sonomechanics, LLC, 2011 "Nanoemulsions Used for Parenteral Nutrition", Industrial Sonomechanics, LLC, 2011 "Drug-Carrier Liposomes and Nanoemulsions", Industrial Sonomechanics, LLC, 2011 of the mixture or with a high-pressure homogenizer, which are high-shearing processes. In an ideal miniemulsion system, coalescence and Ostwald ripening are suppressed thanks to the presence of the surfactant and co-surfactant.Mason TG, Wilking JN, Meleson K, Chang CB, Graves SM, "Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2006, 18(41): R635-R666 Stable droplets are then obtained, which have typically a size between 50 and 500 nm. Miniemulsion-based processes are, therefore, particularly adapted for the generation of nanomaterials. There is a fundamental difference between traditional emulsion polymerisation and a miniemulsion polymerisation. Particle formation in the former is a mixture of micellar and homogeneous nucleation, particles formed via miniemulsion however are mainly formed by droplet nucleation.

References

"green air" © 2007 - Ingo Malchow, Webdesign Neustrelitz
This article based upon the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniemulsion, the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia and is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Further informations available on the list of authors and history: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Miniemulsion&action=history
presented by: Ingo Malchow, Mirower Bogen 22, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany