being fed from a baby bottle]] Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water). The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk".U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What is an infant formula. Manufacturers state that the composition of infant formula is designed to be roughly based on a human mother's milk at approximately one to three months postpartum; however, there are significant differences in the nutrient content of these products.Wells, J.C.K. Nutritional considerations in infant formula design. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 1(1): 19–26 (February 1996). The most commonly used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, and other ingredients depending on the manufacturer.http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10935&page=41 In addition, there are infant formulas using soybean as a protein source in place of cow's milk (mostly in the United States and Great Britain) and formulas using protein hydrolysed into its component amino acids for infants who are allergic to other proteins. An upswing in breastfeeding in many countries has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of baby foods (including cow's milk), resulting in both increased breastfeeding and increased use of infant formula between the ages of 3- and 12-months. A 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) report found that infant formula prepared in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards was a safe complementary food and a suitable breast milk substitute. In 2003, the WHO and UNICEF published their Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which restated that "processed-food products for...young children should, when sold or otherwise distributed, meet applicable standards recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission", and also warned that "lack of breastfeeding—and especially lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life—are important risk factors for infant and childhood morbidity and mortality". In particular, the use of infant formula in less economically developed countries is linked to poorer health outcomes because of the prevalence of unsanitary preparation conditions, including lack of clean water and lack of sanitizing equipment..World Health Organization. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, 2003. Retrieved August 8, 2011. UNICEF estimates that a formula-fed child living in unclean conditions is between 6 and 25 times more likely to die of diarrhea and four times more likely to die of pneumonia than a breastfed child. Rarely, use of powdered infant formula (PIF) has been associated with serious illness, and even death, due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between 1958 and 2006, there have been several dozen reported cases of E. sakazakii infection worldwide. The WHO believes that such infections are under-reported.World Health Organization. Guidelines for the safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula. Geneva, 2007.
Uses, risks and controversiesThe use and marketing of infant formula has come under scrutiny. Breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, is widely advocated as "ideal" for babies and infants, both by health authorities — and accordingly in ethical advertising of infant formula manufacturers. Nestlé FAQ – Should all mothers be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months? Despite the recommendation that babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, less than 40% of infants below this age are exclusively breastfed worldwide.World Health Organization. World Breastfeeding Week August 1–7, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2011. The overwhelming majority of American babies are not exclusively breastfed for this period – in 2005 under 12% of babies were breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months, with over 60% of babies of 2 months of age being fed formula, Infant Feeding Practices Study II > Results and approximately one in four breastfed infants having infant formula feeding within two days of birth. Breastfeeding Among U.S. Children Born 1999—2005, CDC National Immunization Survey Some studies have shown that use of formula can vary according to the parents' socio-economic status, ethnicity or other characteristics. For example, according to a research conducted in Vancouver, Canada, 82.9% of mothers breastfeed their babies at birth, but the number differed between Caucasians (91.6%) and non-Caucasians (56.8%), with the difference essentially attributed to marital status, education and family income.Williams, PL; Innis, SM; Vogel, AM;, (1998), Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Vancouver. Can J Public Health. 1996 Jul–Aug;87(4):231-6. In the United States, mothers of lower socio-economic status have been found less likely to breastfeed, although this may be partly related to adverse effects of government nutrition supplementation programs that provide subsidies for infant formula. The use of hydrolysed cow milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk of allergies or autoimmune diseases.
Use of infant formulaIn some cases, breastfeeding is medically contraindicated. These include:
- Mother's health: The mother is infected with HIV or has active tuberculosis. She is extremely ill or has had certain kinds of breast surgery, which may have removed or disconnected all milk-producing parts of the breast. She is taking any kind of drug that could harm the baby, including both prescription drugs such as cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer treatments as well as illicit drugs.
- * One of the main global risks posed by breastmilk specifically is the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases. Breastfeeding by an HIV-infected mother poses a 5–20% chance of transmitting HIV to the baby.WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNAIDS. HIV transmission through breastfeeding: A review of available evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004. However, if a mother has HIV, she is more likely to transmit it to her child during the pregnancy or birth than during breastfeeding. A 2012 study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed reduced HIV-1 transmission in humanized mice, due to components in the breast milk.Wahl A, Swanson MD, Nochi T, Olesen R, Denton PW, et al. (2012) Human Breast Milk and Antiretrovirals Dramatically Reduce Oral HIV-1 Transmission in BLT Humanized Mice. PLoS Pathog 8(6): e1002732. Cytomegalovirus infection poses potentially dangerous consequences for pre-term babies. Other risks include mother's infection with HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 (viruses that could cause T-cell leukemia in the baby), herpes simplex when lesions are present on the breasts, and chickenpox in the newborn when the disease manifested in the mother within a few days of birth. In some cases these risks can be mitigated by using heat-treated milk and nursing for a briefer time (e.g. 6 months, rather than 18–24 months), and can be avoided by using an uninfected woman's milk, as via a wet-nurse or milk bank, or by using infant formula and/or treated milk. Infant Feeding Options in the Context of HIV
- * In balancing the risks, such as cases where the mother is infected with HIV, a decision to use infant formula versus exclusive breastfeeding may be made based on alternatives that satisfy the “AFASS” (Acceptable, Feasible, Affordable, Sustainable and Safe) principles.de Paoli MD, Manongi RM, Klepp KI. Infant Feeding Options Recommended for Mothers with HIV: Are they acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe? Int Conf AIDS. 2004 Jul 11–16; 15.
- Baby is unable to breastfeed: The child has a birth defect or inborn error of metabolism such as galactosemia that makes breastfeeding difficult or impossible.
- Baby is considered at risk for malnutrition: In certain circumstances infants may be at risk for malnutrition, such as due to iron deficiency, vitamin deficiencies (e.g. vitamin D which may be less present in breastmilk than needed at high latitudes where there is less sun exposure), or inadequate nutrition during transition to solid foods. Risks can often be mitigated with improved diet and education of mothers and caregivers, including availability of macro and micronutrients. For example, in Canada, marketed infant formulas are fortified with vitamin D, but Health Canada also recommends breastfed infants receive extra vitamin D in the form of a supplement.
- Personal preferences, beliefs, and experiences: The mother may dislike breast-feeding or think it is inconvenient. In addition, breastfeeding can be difficult for victims of rape or sexual abuse; for example, it may be a trigger for posttraumatic stress disorder. Many families bottle feed to increase the father's role in parenting his child.
- Absence of the mother: The child is adopted, orphaned, abandoned, or in the sole custody of a man or male same-sex couple. The mother is separated from her child by being in prison or a mental hospital. The mother has left the child in the care of another person for an extended period of time, such as while traveling or working abroad.
- Food allergies: The mother eats foods that may provoke an allergic reaction in the infant.
- Financial pressures: Maternity leave is unpaid, insufficient, or lacking. The mother's employment interferes with breastfeeding. Mothers who breastfeed may experience a loss of earning power.
- Societal structure: Breastfeeding may be forbidden at the mother's job, school, place of worship or in other public places, or the mother may feel that breastfeeding in these places or around other people is immodest, unsanitary, or inappropriate.
- Social pressures: Family members, such as mother's husband or boyfriend, or friends or other members of society may encourage the use of infant formula. For example, they may believe that breastfeeding will decrease the mother's energy, health, or attractiveness.
- Lack of training and education: The mother lacks education and training from medical providers or community members.
- Lactation insufficiency: The mother is unable to produce sufficient milk. In studies that do not account for lactation failure with obvious causes (such as use of formula and/or breast pumps), this affects around 2 to 5% of women. Alternatively, despite a healthy supply, the woman or her family may incorrectly believe that her breast milk is of low quality or in low supply. These women may choose infant formula either exclusively or as a supplement to breastfeeding.
- Fear of exposure to environmental contaminants: Certain environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, can bioaccumulate in the food chain and may be found in humans including mothers' breastmilk.
- * However studies have shown that the greatest risk period for adverse effects from environmental exposures is prenatally. Other studies have further found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased significantly over the past three decades and equally did their exposure through breastfeeding.Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50(10): 922–933, October 2006.
- *Research on risks from chemical pollution is generally inconclusive in terms of outweighing the benefits of breastfeeding. Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby – Chemical Pollution and Mother's Milk – Chemicals: Dioxins and Furans Studies supported by the WHO and others have found that neurological benefits of breast milk remain, regardless of dioxin exposure.Rogan, W.J., et al. Should the Presence of Carcinogens in Breast Milk Discourage Breast Feeding?, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1991; 13: pp. 228–240. – cited in NRDCBrouwer, A., et al. Report of the WHO Working Group on the Assessment of Health Risks for Human Infants from Exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, Chemosphere 1998; 37(9–12): pp. 1627–1643. – cited in NDRC It has also been reported that "adverse effects on learning and behavior are strongly associated with fetal exposure to persistent pollutants, not with breast milk exposure". Environmental Working Group – Mother's Milk – Mother's Milk: Sidebar: Breast Milk Is Still Best
- *In developing countries, environmental contaminants associated with increased health risks from use of infant formula, particularly diarrhea due to unclean water and lack of sterile conditions – both prerequisites to the safe use of formula – often outweigh any risks from breastfeeding.
- Lack of other sources of breastmilk:
- * Lack of wet nurses: Wet nursing is illegal and stigmatized in some countries, and may not be available. Guardian Unlimited: Not your mother's milk It may also be socially unsupported, expensive, or health screening of wet nurses may not be available. The mother, her doctor, "Breast-feeding and Guilt: Interview with a Mayo Clinic Specialist" or family may not know that wet nursing is possible, or may believe that nursing by a relative or paid wet-nurse is unhygienic.
- * Lack of milk banks: Human-milk banks may not be available, as few exist, and many countries cannot provide the necessary screening for diseases and refrigeration.
Health risksUse of infant formula has been cited for numerous increased health risks. Studies have found infants in developed countries who consume formula are at increased risk for acute otitis media, gastroenteritis, severe lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma, obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), eczema and necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to infants who are breastfed. Some studies have found an association between infant formula and lower cognitive development, including iron supplementation in baby formula being linked to lowered I.Q. and other neurodevelopmental delays; however other studies have found no correlation.
Melamine contaminationIn 2008, a case of melamine poisoning of infant formula was discovered in China, where milk was deliberately adulterated with the chemical, leading to the death of six babies, and illnesses in more than 300,000 infants, including cases of acute kidney failure. Large quantities of melamine were added to watered-down milk to give it the appearance of having adequate protein levels. Some of those responsible for the poisoning were sentenced to death. In November 2008, traces of melamine were reported to have been found by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in infant formula sold in the United States made by the three main American firms FDA Finds Traces Of Melamine In US Infant Formula , posted by Associated Press, November 26, 2008. Calls for national infant formula recall spread: Worried parents look for guidance after traces of melamine found, posted by MSNBC.com, November 26, 2008. — Abbott Laboratories, Nestlé and Mead Johnson — responsible for 90–99% of the infant formula market in that country. The levels were much less than those reported in China, where levels of melamine contamination had reached as much as 2,500 parts per million, about 10,000 times higher than the recorded US levels. The safety data sheet for melamine ( CAS registry number 108-78-1; C3-H6-N6) recorded the acute oral toxicity ( median lethal dose) at 3161 mg/kg for a rat. Health Canada conducted a separate test and also detected traces of melamine in infant formula available in Canada. The melamine levels were well below Health Canada's safety limits,Health Canada. Questions and Answers – Melamine. Retrieved August 9, 2011. although concerns remain about the safety of manufactured food for infants and monitoring of potentially dangerous substances. Chinese news media step up efforts in fight for food safety, The Globe and Mail, posted May 18, 2011.
Other health controversies
- In 1985, Syntex Corporation was ordered to pay $27 million in compensation for the deaths of two American infants who suffered brain damage after drinking the company's baby formula, called Neo-mull-soy. Formulas produced by Syntex had previously been subject to a major recall as they were found to have insufficient chloride to support normal infant growth and development. The Syntex Problem , by Robert Goedert, Harvard Law School, May 2007.
- In 2003, baby formula manufactured by the German company Humana and sold in Israel under the brand Remedia caused severe vitamin deficiencies in babies. Babies who consumed the formula were hospitalized with cardiac and neurological symptoms. Three of them died, and at least twenty others were left with severe disabilities. An investigation revealed that the formula contained a much lower quantity of Thiamine than is needed for healthy infant development because of a manufacturing error. Humana's chief food technologist received a 30-month prison sentence for negligent manslaughter in February 2013 over the case.http://www.timesofisrael.com/study-of-israeli-baby-formula-tragedy-highlights-vital-vitamin-b1-role/
- In 2010, Abbott Laboratories issued a voluntary recall of about five million Similac brand powder infant formulas that were sold in the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico and some Caribbean countries. The recall was issued after the presence of a 'small common beetle' was detected in the product. Abbott Voluntarily Recalls Certain Similac® Brand Powder Infant Formulas, Abbott Press Release, issued September 22, 2010.
- In Canada, New Zealand and elsewhere, public concerns have been raised over the continued sale and marketing of soy-based formulae potentially containing high levels of phytoestrogens,INFACT Canada. Genetic engineering and infant foods.World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action. Infant Feeding Products. linked to abnormal child developmentAksglaede L. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens. Human Reproduction Update, Advance Access published May 2, 2006. including damage to babies' thyroid glands.
- In December 2011 Wal-Mart recalled a quantity of infant formula after a baby died in Missouri. "We extend our deepest condolences to this baby boy's family as they try to come to grips with their loss," said Dianna Gee, a Wal-Mart spokeswoman. "As soon as we heard what happened, we immediately reached out to the manufacturer of the formula and to the Department of Health and Senior Services to provide any information we may have to help with the investigation." Wal-Mart said it pulled a batch of Enfamil from its stores nationwide that matched the size and lot number ZP1k7G of the formula that may have sickened the baby in Missouri, Gee said. The baby formula was purchased from a Wal-Mart in Lebanon, Missouri. After the purchase, a 10-day-old infant died from a rare bacterial infection, CNN affiliate KYTV reported. Authorities ran tests to determine if the death came from the formula, the water to make the formula or any other factor, said Mead Johnson Nutrition, the company that makes Enfamil. "We are highly confident in the safety and quality of our products – and the rigorous testing we put them through," said Chris Perille, a Mead Johnson Nutrition spokesman. CNN
Preparation and content
VariationsInfant formulas come in powder, liquid concentrate, and ready-to-feed forms. They are designed to be prepared by the parent or caregiver in small batches and fed to the infant, usually with either a cup or a baby bottle. Infant formulas come in a variety of types:
- Cow's milk formula is the most commonly used type. The milk has been altered to resemble breast milk.
- Soy protein based formulas are frequently used for infants allergic to cow's milk or lactose. Soy-based formulas can also be useful if the parent wants to exclude animal proteins from the child's diet.
- Protein hydrolysate formulas contain protein that's been broken down into smaller sizes than are those in cow's milk and soy-based formulas. Protein hydrolysate formulas are meant for babies who don't tolerate cow's milk or soy-based formulas.
- Specialized formulas are also available for premature infants and those with specific medical conditions.
Nutritional contentBesides breast milk, infant formula is the only other milk product which the medical community considers nutritionally acceptable for infants under the age of one year (as opposed to cow's milk, goat's milk, or follow-on formula). Supplementing with solid food in addition to breast milk or formula begins during weaning, and most babies begin supplementing about the time their first teeth appear, usually around the age of six months. Although cow's milk is the basis of almost all infant formula, plain cow's milk is unsuited for infants because of its high casein content and low whey content, and untreated cow's milk is not recommended before the age of 12 months. The infant intestine is not properly equipped to digest non-human milk, and this may often result in diarrhea, intestinal bleeding and malnutrition. To reduce the negative effect on the infant's digestive system, cow's milk used for formula undergoes processing to be made into infant formula. This includes steps to make protein more easily digestible and alter the whey-to- casein protein balance to one closer to human milk, the addition of several essential ingredients (often called "fortification", see below), the partial or total replacement of dairy fat with fats of vegetable or marine origin, etc. The nutrient content of infant formula for sale in the United States is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. The following must be included in all formulas produced in the U.S.:Blachford, Ed. Cengage, G. “Baby Formula”, eNotes.com, November 3, 2009
- Linoleic acid
- Vitamins: A, C, D, E, K, thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6, B12
- Folic acid
- Pantothenic acid
- Minerals: magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper
- Sodium chloride
- Potassium chloride
- * Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for growing infants, as they account for 35 to 42% of their daily energy intake. In most cow's milk-based formulas, lactose is the main source of carbohydrates present, but lactose is not present in cow's milk-based lactose-free formulas nor specialized non-milk protein formulas or hydrolyzed protein formulas for infants with milk protein sensitivity. Lactose is also not present in soy-based formulas. Therefore, those formulas without lactose will use other sources of carbohydrates, such as sucrose and glucose, dextrins, and natural and modified starches. Lactose is not only a good source of energy, it also aids in the absorption of the minerals magnesium, calcium, zinc and iron.Schmidl, M.K., Labuza, T.P. (2000). "Infant formula and Medical Foods. In Essential of Functional Foods". Aspen Publishers. pp. 137–164. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 7, 2009.
- * Nucleotides are compounds found naturally in human breast milk. They are involved in critical metabolic processes, such as energy metabolism and enzymatic reactions. Also, as the building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), they are essential for normal body functions. Compared to human breast milk, cow's milk has lower levels of the nucleotides uridine, inosine, and cytidine. Therefore, several companies that produce infant formula have added nucleotides to their infant formulas.
- Emulsifiers and stabilizers: Ingredients added to prevent the separation of the oil from the water (and its soluble components) in the infant formula. Some commonly used emulsifiers include monoglycerides, diglycerides, and gums.
- Diluents: Skim milk is commonly used as the primary diluent in milk-based liquid formula to provide the bulk of the volume. In contrast, purified water is the most commonly used diluent in milk-free formulations.
Policy, industry and marketingThe policy, regulatory and industry environments surrounding the infant formula market vary tremendously between countries.
InternationalThe International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes is an international health policy framework adopted by the World Health Assembly of the WHO in 1981 regarding infant formula marketing, including strict restrictions on advertising. Its implementation depends on the laws of different countries and the behavior of infant formula manufacturers – the code has no power itself. Legislation and corporate behavior vary significantly between countries: at least 84 countries have enacted national legislation implementing all or many of the provisions of the Code and 14 countries have draft laws awaiting adoption;UNICEF. International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Retrieved August 9, 2011. whereas elsewhere neither the Code nor its principles are followed by governments or formula manufacturers. Practices that are banned in the Code include most advertising, claiming health benefits for formula, and giving free samples to women able to breastfeed – this latter practice is particularly criticized because it can interfere with lactation, creating dependence on formula. In many countries free samples of infant formula have been provided to hospitals for decades; infant formula is often the only product routinely provided free of charge to hospitals.Counseling the nursing mother, By Judith Lauwers, Anna Swisher, p. 597 The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative aims to reduce and eliminate this controversial practice.
PhilippinesInfant formula is one of the top three consumer commodities in the Philippines, and among the most imported products. Milk wars in the Philippines: Breastmilk versus Infant Formula, Global Voices, posted July 11, 2007. Annual sales amount to some US$469 million annually. US$88 million is spent on advertising the product.Cher S Jimenez, Spilled corporate milk in the Philippines, Asia Times Online, July 25, 2007, retr 22Dec 2008 Infant formula marketing has been regulated since the 1987 Executive Order 51 or "Milk Code", which regulated, but did not ban, practices such as advertising and providing free samples. Shortly after it was enacted, Wyeth introduced "follow-on formula", which was not in the purview of the Milk Code which predated its market entry. In 2006, the Department of Health banned the advertising of infant formula and the practice of providing free samples, regardless of intended age group (in the Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations of Executive Order 51, or RIRR).UNICEF Philippines. Breastfeeding advocates form consolidated action against formula companies. Makati City, November 13, 2006. Retrieved August 9, 2011. The new regulation was challenged by the infant formula industry in the Supreme Court. Initially the challenge was dismissed, but this decision was reversed following industry pressure and a controversial letter by American business leader Thomas Donahue, Letter by Thomas Donahue, August 11, 2006 then President and CEO of the US Chamber of Commerce, resulting in the regulation being suspended and advertising continuing. The Philippine Milk Code: A timeline Breast or bottle: The final showdown
South AfricaIn South Africa, there is a move towards plain packaging of infant formula Formula for Plain (Bland) Packaging The Anton Mostert Chair of Intellectual Property, December 3, 2013. Retrieved 24 July, 2014 under R 991 of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act; as of 6 December 2013, Regulation 7 (Sale and Promotion) is force, whereas Regulations 2-6 (primarily with respect to labelling) are scheduled to come into force on 6 December 2014. One of the key requirements as per Regulation 3.1.A.iii is a conspicuous message stating “ this product shall only be used on the advice of a health professional”.
United KingdomIn the United Kingdom, infant formula advertising has been illegal since 1995, Statutory Instrument 1995 No. 77: The Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula Regulations 1995 but advertising for "follow-on formula" is legal, which has been cited as a loophole allowing advertising of similarly-packaged formula. Legal loophole allows banned formula advertising to mothers
United StatesIn the United States, infant formula is both heavily marketed – the country has not adopted the Code, nor is it being systematically implemented by manufacturers for domestic marketing Breastfeeding Around the World: The International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. Retrieved August 9, 2011. – and even heavily subsidized by the government: at least one third of the American market is supported by the government, with over half of infant formula sold in the country provided through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (known as WIC). Sharing the Economic Burden: Who Pays for WIC’s Infant Formula? , AmberWaves, September 2004. According to surveys, over 70% of large U.S. hospitals dispense infant formula to all infants, a practice opposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and in violation of the Code. Periodic Survey of Fellows: Survey shows most AAP members support formula advertising policy , American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The Gerber Products Company began marketing its brand of infant formula directly to the public in October 1989, while the Carnation Company began marketing Good Start infant formula directly to the public in January 1991. Infant formula costs are a significant fraction of the WIC program costs: 21% post-rebate and 46% pre-rebate. Formula manufacturers are granted a WIC monopoly in individual states. Meanwhile, breastfeeding rates are substantially lower for WIC recipients; Breastfeeding: Some Strategies Used to Market Infant Formula May Discourage Breastfeeding; State Contracts Should Better Protect against Misuse of WIC Name, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) this is partly attributed to formula being free of charge to mothers in the WIC program, who are of lower socio-economic status. Violations of federal policy have also been found in terms of infant formula company advertising using the WIC trademark, to reach both WIC and non-WIC participants. In recent years WIC has been expanding its breastfeeding promotion strategies, including providing subsidies for clients who use milk banks. Banking on Breastmilk
Early infant foodsThroughout history, mothers who could not breastfeed their babies either employed a wet nurse or, less frequently, prepared food for their babies, a process known as "dry nursing". Baby food composition varied according to region and economic status. In Europe and America during the early 19th century, the prevalence of wet nursing began to decrease, while the practice of feeding babies mixtures based on animal milk rose in popularity. This trend was driven by cultural changes as well as increased sanitation measures, and it continued throughout the 19th and much of the 20th century, with a notable increase after Elijah Pratt invented and patented the India-rubber nipple in 1845. As early as 1846, scientists and nutritionists noted an increase in medical problems and infant mortality was associated with dry nursing. In an attempt to improve the quality of manufactured baby foods, in 1867, Justus von Liebig developed the world's first commercial infant formula, Liebig's Soluble Food for Babies. The success of this product quickly gave rise to competitors such as Mellin's Food, Ridge's Food for Infants and Nestlé's Milk.
Raw milk formulasAs physicians became increasingly concerned about the quality of such foods, medical recommendations such as Thomas Morgan Rotch's "percentage method" (published in 1890) began to be distributed, and gained widespread popularity by 1907. These complex formulas recommended that parents mix cow's milk, water, cream, and sugar or honey in specific ratios to achieve the nutritional balance believed to approximate human milk reformulated in such a way as to accommodate the believed digestive capability of the infant. At the dawn of the 20th century in the United States, most infants were breastfed, although many received some formula feeding as well. Home-made "percentage method" formulas were more commonly used than commercial formulas in both Europe and the United States. They were less expensive and were widely believed to be healthier. However, formula-fed babies exhibited more diet-associated medical problems, such as scurvy, rickets and bacterial infections than breastfed babies. By 1920, the incidence of scurvy and rickets in formula-fed babies had greatly decreased through the addition of orange juice and cod liver oil to home-made formulas. Bacterial infections associated with formula remained a problem more prevalent in the United States than in Europe, where milk was usually boiled prior to use in formulas.
Evaporated milk formulasIn the 1920s and 1930s, evaporated milk began to be widely commercially available at low prices, and several clinical studies suggested that babies fed evaporated milk formula thrive as well as breastfed babies These findings are not supported by modern research. These studies, accompanied by the affordable price of evaporated milk and the availability of the home icebox initiated a tremendous rise in the use of evaporated milk formulas. By the late 1930s, the use of evaporated milk formulas in the United States surpassed all commercial formulas, and by 1950 over half of all babies in the United States were reared on such formulas.
Commercial formulasIn parallel with the enormous shift (in industrialized nations) away from breastfeeding to home-made formulas, nutrition scientists continued to analyze human milk and attempted to make infant formulas that more closely matched its composition. Maltose and dextrins were believed nutritionally important, and in 1912, the Mead Johnson Company released a milk additive called Dextri-Maltose. This formula was made available to mothers only by physicians. In 1919, milkfats were replaced with a blend of animal and vegetable fats as part of the continued drive to closer simulate human milk. This formula was called SMA for "simulated milk adapted." In the late 1920s, Alfred Bosworth released Similac (for "similar to lactation"), and Mead Johnson released Sobee. Several other formulas were released over the next few decades, but commercial formulas did not begin to seriously compete with evaporated milk formulas until the 1950s. The reformulation and concentration of Similac in 1951, and the introduction (by Mead Johnson) of Enfamil (for "infant meal") in 1959 were accompanied by marketing campaigns that provided inexpensive formula to hospitals and pediatricians. By the early 1960s, commercial formulas were more commonly used than evaporated milk formulas in the United States, which all but vanished in the 1970s. By the early 1970s, over 75% of American babies were fed on formulas, almost entirely commercially produced. When birth rates in industrial nations tapered off during the 1960s, infant formula companies heightened marketing campaigns in non-industrialized countries. Unfortunately, poor sanitation led to steeply increased mortality rates among infants fed formula prepared with contaminated (drinking) water. Additionally, low-income families may over-dilute in an effort to "stretch" supplies resulting in malnourishment for the infant. Breastfeeding: Only 1 in 5 countries fully implement WHO’s infant formula Code, WHO, 30 July 2013. Organized protests, the most famous of which was the Nestlé boycott of 1977, called for an end to unethical marketing. This boycott is ongoing, as the current coordinators maintain that Nestlé engages in marketing practices which violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
Generic brand formulasIn addition to commercially marketed brands, generic brands (or store brands) of infant formula were introduced in the United States in 1997, first by PBM Products. These private label formulas are sold by many leading food and drug retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target, Kroger, Loblaws, and Walgreens. All infant formula brands in the United States are required to adhere to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. As reported by the Mayo Clinic: “as with most consumer products, brand-name infant formulas cost more than generic brands. But that doesn't mean that brand-name Nestle, Enfamil formulas are better. Although manufacturers may vary somewhat in their formula recipes, the FDA requires that all formulas contain the same nutrient density.” Mayo Clinic, November 2007 Similarly, in Canada all infant formulas regardless of brand are required to meet standards set by Health Canada.Government of Alberta, Health and Wellness. Infant formula.
Follow-on and toddler formulasFollow-on or toddler formulas are sold for ages 6 months to 2 years, (when infants are typically breastfed) and are not nutritionally complete nor subject to the same regulations as infant formula. Critics have argued that follow-on and toddler formulas were introduced to circumvent the regulations regarding infant formula and have resulted in confusing advertising. An early example of follow-on formula was introduced by Wyeth in the Philippines in 1987, following the introduction in this country of regulations on infant formula advertising, but which did not address follow-on formulas (products that did not exist at the time of their drafting). Similarly, while infant formula advertising is illegal in the United Kingdom, follow-on formula advertising is legal, and the similar packaging and market results in follow-on advertisements frequently being interpreted as advertisements for formula. (See also industry and marketing, below.) These products have also recently fallen under criticism for contributing to the childhood obesity epidemic in some developed countries due to their marketing and flavoring practices.ABC News. Chocolate Toddler 'Formula' Pulled After Sugar Uproar. June 10, 2010.
Usage since 1970sSince the early 1970s, industrial countries have witnessed a resurgence in breastfeeding among newborns and infants to 6 months of age. This upswing in breastfeeding has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of other foods (such as cow's milk), resulting in increased use of both breastfeeding and infant formula between the ages of 3–12 months. The global infant formula market has been estimated at $7.9 billion, A Growing Boost for Baby Formula, by Markos Kaminis, BusinessWeek, January 11, 2005 with North America and Western Europe accounting for 33% of the market and considered largely saturated, and Asia representing 53% of the market. South East Asia is a particularly large fraction of the world market relative to its population. Infant formula is the largest segment of the baby food market, Ingredients for the World Infant Formula Market, UBIC consulting with the fraction given as between 40% and 70%. Leading health organizations (e.g. WHO, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Department of Health and Human Services) are attempting to reduce the use of infant formula and increase the prevalence of breastfeeding from birth through 12 to 24 months of age through public health awareness campaigns. The specific goals and approaches of these breastfeeding promotion programs, and the policy environment surrounding their implementation, vary by country. As a policy basic framework, the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, adopted by the WHO's World Health Assembly in 1981, requires infant formula companies to preface their product information with statements that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding babies and that a substitute should only be used after consultation with health professionals. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative also restricts use by hospitals of free formula or other infant care aids provided by formula companies. (See also Policy section below.)
Infant formula processing
Current general procedureThe manufacturing process may differ for different types of formula made; therefore the following is the general procedure for liquid-milk based formulas:
Mixing ingredientsPrimary ingredients are blended in large stainless steel tanks and skim milk is added and adjusted to 60 °C. Then, fats, oils and emulsifiers are added. Additional heating and mixing may be required to get proper consistency. Next, minerals, vitamins, and stabilizing gums are added at various points, depending on their sensitivity to heat. The batch is temporarily stored and then transported by pipelines to pasteurization equipment when mixing is complete.
PasteurizationThis is a process that protects against spoilage by eliminating bacteria, yeasts and molds. It involves quickly heating and then cooling of the product under controlled conditions which micro-organisms cannot survive. The batch is held at around 85–94 °C for approximately 30 seconds which is necessary to adequately reduce micro-organisms and prepare the formula for filling.
HomogenizationThis is a process which increases emulsion uniformity and stability by reducing size of fat and oil particles in the formula. It is done with a variety of mixing equipment that applies shear to the product and this mixing breaks fat and oil particles into very small droplets.
StandardizationStandardization is used to ensure that the key parameters like pH, fat concentration and vitamins and mineral content are correct. If insufficient levels of these are found, the batch is reworked to achieve appropriate levels. After this step, the batch is ready to be packaged.
PackagingPackaging depends on manufacturer and type of equipment used, but in general, liquid formula is filled into metal cans with lids crimped into place.
Heat treatment or sterilizationFinally, infant formulas are heat treated to maintain the bacteriologic quality of the product. This can be done traditionally by either retort sterilization or high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment. Recently, ultrahigh-temperature treated formula has become more commonly used. If powdered formula is made, then spray drying would be required in addition. Retort sterilization is a traditional retort sterilization method that uses 10-15mins treatment at 118 °C. Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) is a method that uses a brief (2–3 seconds) treatment at 142 °C. Because of the short time used, there is little protein denaturation, but the process still ensures sterility of the final product.
Recent and future potential new ingredients
ProbioticsRecently, probiotics have become a new ingredient in many of our foods, and studies have been completed regarding the use of probiotics in infant formulaCarvalho, R.S., Michail, S., Ashai-Khan, F., Mezoff, A.G. (2008). An Update on Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: A Review of Some Recent Advances. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care, 204–228. Several randomized, controlled trials completed recently have shown limited and short term clinical benefits for the use of probiotics in infants’ diet The safety of probiotics in general and in infants, especially preterm infants, has been investigated in a limited number of controlled trials. The findings thus far suggest probiotics are generally safe. Therefore, the study suggested more scientific research is necessary before a conclusion can be made about probiotic supplementation in infant formula, since the research is still quite preliminary.
PrebioticsPrebiotics are undigestible carbohydrates that promote the growth of probiotic bacteria in the gut. Human milk contains a variety of oligosaccharides believed to be an important factor in the pattern of microflora colonization of breastfed infants. Because of variety, variability, complexity and polymorphism of the oligosaccharide composition and structure, it is currently not feasible to reproduce the oligosaccharide components of human milk in a strictly structural fashion.International Assassination of Infant Food Manufacturers, “Prebiotics in Infant Nutrition” , November 9, 2009 The European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition found evidence to support short term effects of ingesting prebiotics on stool microflora of infants with increased in the number of bifidobacteria. Babies can be at risk of dehydration with the induction of softer stools, if they have the kidney immaturity and/or a poor ability to concentrate urine. A reduction of pathogens has been associated with the consumption of prebiotics. However, there was no evidence to support major clinical or long-term benefits. Therefore, there is little evidence of beneficial effects of prebiotics in dietary products.
Lysozyme and lactoferrinLysozyme is an enzyme that is responsible for protecting the body by damaging bacterial cell walls. Lactoferrin is a globular, multifunctional protein that has antimicrobial activity. Compared to human milk, cow’s milk has a signifactly lower levels of lysozyme and lactoferrin; therefore, the industry has an increasing interest in adding them into infant formulas.
- Child development
- Baby food
- Baby bottle
- Breast milk
- Dairy allergy
- List of dairy products