Gelato (; plural: gelati , from the Italian word gelato meaning "frozen"https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gelato) is Italian ice cream. Gelato is made with a base of milk, cream, and sugar, and flavored with fruit and nut purees and other flavourings. It is generally lower in fat, than other styles of ice cream. Gelato typically contains less air and more flavoring than other kinds of frozen desserts, giving it a density and richness that distinguishes it from other ice creams.Ferrari, p. 21 In Italy, by law, gelato must have at least 3.5% butterfat. In the United States, there is no legal standard of definition for gelato as there is for ice cream, which must contain at least 10% butterfat. Gelato can be served in any way that ice cream is, including cup, cone, sandwich, cake, pie, or on a stick.
HistoryThe history of gelato is rife with myths and very little evidence to substantiate them. Some say it dates back to frozen desserts in Sicily, ancient Rome and Egypt made from snow and ice brought down from mountaintops and preserved below ground. Later, in 1686 the Italian fisherman from the island of Sicily Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli perfected the first ice cream machine. Storia del gelato. Interfred.it. Retrieved on 2012-07-06. However, the popularity of gelato among larger shares of the population only increased in the 1920s–1930s in the northern Italian city of Varese, where the first gelato cart was developed. Italy is the only country where the market share of artisanal gelato versus mass-produced gelato is over 55%.See italiangelato.infoSee gelatoartigianale.it Today, more than 5,000 modern Italian ice cream parlors employ over 15,000 people.See guide.supereva.it, outside of Italy the bigger number of gelaterie is located in UK, France, Germany and north Europe in general.
ProductionThe mixture for gelato is typically prepared using a hot process first, where the sugars need to dissolve. White base is heated to completing a pasteurization program. The hot process to make chocolate gelato varies, though typically it is flavored with cocoa powder. As with other ice creams, the sugar in gelato prevents it from freezing solid by binding to the water and interfering with the normal ice crystal. This creates smaller ice crystals and results in the smooth texture of gelato. American commercial gelati are typically sweetened with sucrose, dextrose, or inverted sugar, and include a stabilizer such as guar gum.
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